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About Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) for Children

As part of UNICEF's continued efforts to generate quality evidence on child poverty and disparities, the Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) is a tool developed by the UNICEF Office of Research, with support from Division of Policy and Strategy, to enhance the equity focus of child poverty and deprivation analyses around the world.

MODA adopts a holistic definition of child well-being, concentrating on the access to various goods and services which are crucial for their survival and development. It recognizes that a child's experience of deprivations is multi-faceted and interrelated, and that such multiple, overlapping deprivations are more likely to occur, and with greater adverse effects, in more socio-economically disadvantaged groups.

MODA builds on UNICEF's Global Study on Child Poverty and Disparities, OPHI's Multidimensional Poverty Index, and other research carried out in the field of multidimensional poverty (see 'Lost (in) Dimensions' for background). MODA has five main characteristics that may be distinguished from most existing studies:

  • It selects the child as the unit of analysis, rather than the household, since children experience poverty differently from adults especially with regards to developmental needs;
  • It adopts a life-cycle approach that reflects the different needs of early childhood, primary childhood and adolescence;
  • It applies a whole-child oriented approach by measuring the number of deprivations each child experiences simultaneously, revealing those most deprived;
  • It measures monetary poverty and multidimensional deprivations simultaneously for each child whenever the data used has information on both; and
  • It enriches knowledge from sector-based approaches through overlapping deprivation analyses and generating profiles in terms of the geographical and socio-economic characteristics of the (multiply) deprived, thereby pointing towards mechanisms for effective policy design.

This web portal contains the following outputs and resources:

  • Cross-country Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis for Children (CC-MODA) analyzes child deprivation for low- and lower-middle income countries according to internationally accepted standards of child well-being, utilizing internationally comparable datasets that contain child-specific information, i.e. DHS and MICS. The 'CC-MODA Technical Note' describes the technicalities of this analysis. Note that monetary poverty is not included in the analysis due to the data used.
  • National MODA analysis for Children (N-MODA) is an application of the MODA methodology to specific national contexts with customized dimensions, thresholds and indicators, utilizing richer information available from national datasets. This section is based on the input of countries carrying out N-MODA and will be regularly updated with new country results.
  • MODA for the European Union (EU-MODA) uses cross-country comparable data for 27 EU member states, as well as Iceland and Norway, from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) survey. The analysis uses indicators, dimensions and profiling variable which are relevant for the children in this region, see the 'Technical Note on EU-MODA'.
  • The 'Step-by-step guidelines to MODA' assists in carrying out the entire process of the multidimensional deprivation analysis.

We invite you to visit our website on a regular basis as the results from the analyses on other countries will be added.

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